The simplest form of carbohydrates is glucose; glucose can be used by your body for energy or stored in your liver and muscles to be used later, if needed. Another name for glucose is dextrose; it’s commonly found in corn syrup, fruit juice and refined sugar products like table sugar and honey. Lactose and maltose are also simple sugars; they’re used to make dairy products like milk and ice cream.
The most basic type of carbohydrates is called a monosaccharide. Monosaccharides are single sugars that aren’t attached to each other and can easily be absorbed into your bloodstream. The three main types of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose. Glucose is commonly known as blood sugar or dextrose and is present in fruits and grains, while fructose is found in honey, fruit juices, and table sugar.
Galactose can be found in milk, so it’s often referred to as lactose. Sucrose (table sugar) is actually made up of one molecule each of glucose and fructose joined together.
A Disaccharide is a two-molecule form of carbohydrate which is composed from two monosaccharides bonded together. These are generally used for storage in living organisms. They include common sugars such as sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (from starch).
Disaccharides can also form complexes with proteins or ions to form coenzymes, such as NADH or ATP. When speaking about molecules, if a molecule has only 2 it is considered a Disaccharide. Also, you can look up disaccharides on Wikipedia for more information and sources.
The simplest form of carbohydrates is an oligosaccharide. Oligosaccharides are made up of many simple sugars and consist mainly of glucose, fructose and galactose, often with one or more units removed. Oligosaccharides cannot be digested by humans; instead, they are used as energy sources by intestinal bacteria.
The main function of oligosaccharides is to increase fecal bulk and stimulate peristalsis in order to increase defecation. They have a prebiotic effect: they promote bacterial growth such as lactobacilli which stimulate a healthy colonic microflora.
The simplest carbohydrates are polysaccharides, also known as complex carbohydrates. They consist of long chains of simple sugars (i.e., glucose, fructose, galactose and mannose) bonded together. Polysaccharides are further divided into two categories: Starch is a storage form for energy and is found in things like potatoes and grains.
Cellulose makes up part of plants cell walls and is what gives them their structure (this is why we don’t digest it). Fiber comes from plant-based foods that we either can’t digest or need to eat for health reasons, like nuts and seeds or oatmeal.
The simplest form of carbohydrates is actually water. For example, if you put 100g of glucose into a container and added 100g of water to it, you would still have a net of zero for carbs as there are no other carbohydrates that are adding to your total. Even though simple sugars like glucose do not take up any space on their own in your body, they can combine with fat to make lipids which will take up space in your blood stream.
So, it’s important to be careful about how much sugar you consume at one time so that you don’t overload on fats (which do matter).